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PA Biology Part 1
LI.SCI.701113.1.HO
Course Length: 1 Semester
Has Textbook: Yes

PA Biology is designed to prepare students for the Biology Keystone Exam.  PA Biology contains 16 Keystone group assessments per part, each with 2 short answers and one extended essay question. 

Before beginning Biology Part 1, students will be required to have successfully completed all required middle school science and math courses.  Biology Part 1 will cover a wide range of concepts in the field of biology.  Students will first be introduced to the study of biology and its four unifying themes.  Students will review the scientific method and how it will be utilized in this course.  Students will also discover how various topics of chemistry are incorporated into the field of biology. Furthermore, students will be introduced to the concept of the cell, including cell structure and function, how cells receive their energy, and how cells grow and divide. Finally, the concept of the cell will be extended and students will explore the concept of genetics.  In this part of the course, students will discuss the process of meiosis, Mendelian genetics, and how humans inherit traits. The course will conclude with the structure and mechanisms of DNA, as well as the role of biotechnology in today's society.  This part of the course includes both online lessons, textbook readings, and the opportunity for hands-on learning through labs.





Unit 1: Essential Content and Skills

  • Generalize the characteristics of all living things.
  • Evaluate how biological structure and function are related by analyzing various structures and providing associated functions.
  • Analyze how evolution provides an explanation of how the many different life forms on Earth are connected.
  • Determine the difference between hypotheses and theories.
  • Analyze how modern technologies are important.
  • Explain how the future may be influenced by advances in technology.
  • Compare and contrast covalent and ionic bonding.
  • Explain the importance of hydrogen bonds to life processes.
  • Describe the special ways in which carbon atoms bond to create life sustaining molecules.
  • Describe how bonds break and rebuild as chemical reactions take place.

Unit 2: Essential Content and Skills

  • Explain cell theory by analyzing the history of scientific research.
  • Differentiate between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells by analyzing various examples and identifying the different structures.
  • Compare and contrast the major differences between plant cells and animal cells by accessing the additional structures.
  • Describe passive transport by comparing and contrasting various examples, such as osmosis, diffusion, and facilitated diffusion.
  • Analyze active transport by tracing the energy involved in moving materials across the cell membrane.
  • Outline the light-dependent reactions to describe how energy is captured and transferred.
  • Outline the light-independent reactions to describe how sugar is made.
  • Summarize the process of cellular respiration by sequencing the main phases, including the Krebs cycle and electron transport chain.
  • Describe the stages of the cell cycle
  • Describe a chromosome's structure by analyzing its material and formation.

Unit 3: Essential Content and Skills

  • Analyze body cells and gametes and determine the differences.
  • Sequence, compare, contrast, and connect meiosis I and meiosis II.
  • Summarize Mendel's work on the patterns of inheritance and his conclusions, which led to his law of segregation.
  • Formulate different Punnett squares to mathematically illustrate basic genetic inheritance.
  • Illustrate basic genetic inheritance mathematically.
  • Examine sexual reproduction to see how distinctive gene combinations are created.
  • Relate dominant and recessive inheritance to autosomal genetic disorders.
  • Describe how sex-linked traits are inherited.
  • Analyze the interaction of polygenic traits and demonstrate how the environment affects phenotypic expression.
  • Analyze a pedigree and describe how it is used to trace genes through family lineage.

Unit 4: Essential Content and Skills

  • Explain how Oswald Avery discovered Griffith’s transforming principle was DNA.
  • Explain how Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase’s experiments affirmed DNA as the genetic material.
  • Summarize DNA replication, making note of each of the steps and biological materials involved.
  • Compare and contrast transcription and replication.
  • Summarize protein synthesis and translation.
  • Explain how eukaryotic cells regulate the expression of their genes during protein synthesis.
  • Describe the three main steps in PCR and the use of restriction maps to describe DNA fingerprints.
  • Describe how DNA fingerprints can identify individuals and how cloning can produce a living organism.
  • Analyze examples of how new and different genes can be inserted into the DNA of an organism by way of genetic engineering.
  • Identify the technologies used to study and compare genes and proteins.